Introduction: Sensory processing generally refers to the handling of sensory information by neural systems, including the functions of receptor organs and the peripheral and central nervous systems. Sensory processing difficulties occur in a host of neuro developmental problems like Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among several others. These can also occur in children considered otherwise normal.
Aim: To assess prevalence and distribution of Sensory Processing Difficulties among children attending the Child Guidance Clinic with focus on ADHD (excluding ASD) in a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata.
Methodology: All new cases attending the Child Guidance Clinic during study period were included. Serious comorbid physical illness requiring admission, refusal to give consent and cases diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder, learning disorder, Intellectual Disabilities and Psychiatric sequelae of serious physical illness were exclusion factors. All children who were referred to the Child Guidance Clinic were routinely administered the Child Symptom Inventory (CSI), followed by detailed evaluation. Cases were selected as per inclusion and exclusion criteria. Final diagnosis regarding psychopathology was made on the basis of DSM-5 criteria. Following this, another researcher (Occupational therapist) who was blind to the diagnosis screened the patient for Sensory Processing Difficulties using the validated tools Winnie Dunn Short Sensory Profile (SSP).
Results: Difference of mean SSP scores between two groups i.e. ADHD (mean score – 134.41) and others including ODD, CD, Mood disorders (mean score-153.10) was statistically significant.
Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware that children with externalizing behaviors like ADHD may also have underlying sensory processing difficulties which may be masked. Hence evaluation of sensory processing difficulties should form an integral part of the assessment process in such conditions.
Background: Pathways of care support the development of care partnerships and empower patients and their care providers along with necessary modifications in the existing health services.
Aim: To examine the various pathways of psychiatric treatment in rural patients with psychosis and to know the source of referral, first contact for treatment, awareness about the signs and symptoms and various symptoms (complains) with which the patients presented themselves to the different modalities of treatment.
Methods: It was a cross sectional hospital based study conducted at Out-Patient Department of Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry & Allied Sciences (RINPAS) Kanke, Ranchi. Purposive sampling technique was used for the study, total 96 participants were selected in 1 month duration. Subjects were evaluated using socio demographic datasheet, WHO counter form and BPRS-24.
Results: The present study found that the mean duration of untreated psychosis was 558.80±707.08 days. First symptoms appeared at onset of illness, in which fearfulness (13.5%) appeared in most patients. Time taken to decide to go for consultation after onset of illness was 417.67±621.11 days. Maximum first consultations were to native & faith healers (69.8%) and only 17.7% consulted psychiatric services at first contact. For the first referral, 64.6% patients shifted to psychiatric services from other modes such as native/faith healer, general hospital and medical practitioner.
CONCLUSION: The study provides an insight into the nature of the pathway and referral taken by rural patients with psychosis and their caregivers.
Memory disorders and disturbances are frequently encountered in the clinical practice and are a feature of the majority of psychiatric and neurological conditions causing significant disability. With the rapidly evolving understanding of the nature, different forms and assessments of memory disorders, it becomes crucially important to periodically take stock of the nature of research that falls within its purview. Assessment of the nature of the memory disorder and the functional consequences for the individual should precede remediation and intervention planning. The present mini-review is one such attempt to provide a scan of the emerging empirical literature that has attempted to understand, assess and enhance memory disturbances in the clinical setting.