Eastern Journal of Psychiatry

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2011 | February-August | Volume 14 | Issue 1-2

EDITORIAL

SRP Shukla

Socio-Economics - Repercussions on Mental Health

[Year:2011] [Month:February-August] [Volume:14] [Number:1-2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:00 - 00]

   DOI: 10.5005/EJP-14-1--2-i  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

EDITORIAL

S.R.P. Shukla

This Issue

[Year:2011] [Month:February-August] [Volume:14] [Number:1-2] [Pages:1] [Pages No:00 - 00]

   DOI: 10.5005/EJP-14-1--2-ii  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

REVIEW ARTICLE

Gurvinder Pal Singh

Management of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with Methylphenidate - A Brief Review

[Year:2011] [Month:February-August] [Volume:14] [Number:1-2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:1 - 6]

Keywords: Methylphenidate, ADHD, Psycho stimulants

   DOI: 10.5005/EJP-14-1--2-1  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Methylphenidate has maintained its place, as first-line choice for the pharmacotherapy of ADHD. Methylphenidate is the most commonly used psychostimulant and has proven its short and long-term efficacy in treatment of ADHD. More than 70% of the children improve with it. Excellent results particularly on cognitive manifestations of this disorder with Methylphenidate are found in most of the studies. Currently its mechanism of action and other significant aspects are being understood in a much better way. In our country its wider availability and more clinical research is suggested so that maximum number of children with ADHD can benefit from metylphenidate use.

REVIEW ARTICLE

Shivani , Neha Sayeed, Sujit Sarkhel

Motor Disorder: A Psychological Perspective

[Year:2011] [Month:February-August] [Volume:14] [Number:1-2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:7 - 10]

Keywords: motor disorder, assessment, management

   DOI: 10.5005/EJP-14-1--2-7  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

From the point of view of the ‘psychic reflex arc’ all psychiatric events merge into motor phenomena, which assist the final inner elaboration of stimuli into external world. We can therefore examine the many, often grotesque, movements of mental patients from two points of view. Either we try to acquaint ourselves with the disturbances of motor mechanism itself, which can show disturbances independent of any psychiatric anomaly and this is the approach adopted by neurology. Or we try to know the abnormal psychic life and the patient's volitional awareness, which these conspicuous movements exhibit. In so far as we know the meaningful connections, the movement becomes behavior we understand, for instance the delight in activity shown by the manic patients in their exuberance or the increased urge to move shown by the patients who are desperately anxious. Somewhat between neurological phenomena and the psychological phenomena lie the psychotic motor phenomena which we register without being able to comprehend them satisfactorily one way or the other. They can be explained psychologically. Some of the disorders various culturally. Motor disorder can be assessed and managed psychologically

Original Article

Jay Kumar Ranjan, Om Prakash, Masroor Jahan, Amool R. Singh

Co-Morbid Personality Disorders among Alcohol Dependent Patients

[Year:2011] [Month:February-August] [Volume:14] [Number:1-2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:11 - 14]

Keywords: Co-morbid, Personality Disorder, Alcohol Dependents

   DOI: 10.5005/EJP-14-1--2-11  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

The aim of the present research investigation was to describe the co-morbid personality disorder among alcohol dependent patients and to compare it with those of the normal population. Based on purposive sampling technique, 50 alcohol dependent patients were selected from psychiatric inpatient of RINPAS and 50 normal participants were selected from the general population. Both the groups were matched for age, gender and socioeconomic level. All participants were assessed with Millon Clinical Multi-axial Inventory (MCMI)-III. The obtained responses were scored by using standard scoring procedure and subsequently statistically analyzed by using of x2 test and step wise discriminant analysis. Results revealed that alcohol dependent patients have more co-morbid pathological personality traits and disorders in comparison to normal control group. Of the alcohol-dependent patients, dependent personality disorder was most prevalent followed by antisocial, negativistic and compulsive personality disorders.

Original Article

Sarika Alreja, Deepak Kumar Mishra, K. S. Sengar, Amool R. Singh

A Study of Emotional Intelligence of Cases with Substance Dependence

[Year:2011] [Month:February-August] [Volume:14] [Number:1-2] [Pages:5] [Pages No:15 - 19]

Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, Substance Dependence, Neo cortex, Intrapersonal management

   DOI: 10.5005/EJP-14-1--2-15  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Nobody's expressed intent is to become addicted. Their intent is pleasure, or to relieve suffering, to have fun, to fit in, to quell anger, or any number of other things. Intentionality is an emotional intelligence competency which permits the patient to accomplish what he sets out to, not something else. The present study examined the association between emotional intelligence and substance dependence in terms of intra-personal awareness (own emotions), interpersonal awareness (others emotions), intra-personal management (own emotions) and inter-personal management (others emotions) and aggregate emotional quotient. Sixty substance dependent patients diagnosed according to ICD-10 criteria and sixty normal participants matched in gender were taken for the study. Participants were individually assessed on Mangal Emotional Intelligence Inventory to examine the status of emotional intelligence. In comparison to normal participants substance dependent patients were significantly deficient in almost all the areas of emotional intelligence under study.

Original Article

Preeti Mishra, Shobit Garg, Jyoti Mishra, Sayeed Akhtar

Study of Marital Adjustment and Sexual Behaviour In Correlation With Quality of Life in Patients With Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

[Year:2011] [Month:February-August] [Volume:14] [Number:1-2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:20 - 23]

Keywords: Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, marital adjustment, sexual behaviour

   DOI: 10.5005/EJP-14-1--2-20  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: Marriage is a social process requiring certain social ability for it to be successful. Schizophrenia can lead to a reduction of social ability which has been associated with poor marital adjustment and sexual satisfaction among partners. The present study was designed to compare marital adjustment and sexual behaviour in correlation with quality of life in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Method: Study group consisted of outpatients with schizophrenia (n=30) and bipolar disorder (n=30) diagnosed according to ICD 10-DCR. Garos Sexual Behaviour Inventory (GSBI), Marital Adjustment Scale (MAS) and WHO Quality of Life (WHO QoL)-BREF were applied in both the groups to assess sexual behaviour, marital adjustment and quality of life, respectively. Results: Both groups reported that they had problems in marital adjustment and sexual behaviour. Patients with schizophrenia had significantly greater problems in marital adjustment and sexual behaviour. Patients with schizophrenia had statistically significant lower scores in different areas of GBSI. Quality of life in bipolar patients was negatively correlated with confidence domain of GSBI. Conclusion: Patients with bipolar and schizophrenia had problems in marital and sexual life. It was also found that schizophrenic patients had greater problems in the adjustment with their spouses.

Original Article

Smita Hemrom, Divya Prasad, Pushpa , K.S. Sengar, P.K. Singh, Amool R Singh

Cognitive Dysfunctions in Depressive Patients

[Year:2011] [Month:February-August] [Volume:14] [Number:1-2] [Pages:8] [Pages No:24 - 31]

Keywords: Cognitive symptoms, Depression, Cognitive Dysfunction

   DOI: 10.5005/EJP-14-1--2-24  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Cognition is the word often used to describe the fundamental capacity to think. Its disturbance in depression is probably what most bothers patients and their families and not the symptoms, they are usually used to measure and diagnose the condition. It has also become clear that depression has an enduring impact on memory function, attention and other domains of cognition with major implication for neurological explanation of depression. Cognitive functions have thus become an increasingly central target for emergent interest and relevance. These developments have also reignited interest in patient experience and the possibility that may be blunted in depression, but also as a consequence of its treatment. Past studies on depression have documented cognitive dysfunctions significantly. Aim In this study an attempt was made to assess and compare the cognitive impairment in depressive patients and normal subjects. Methodology The sample was selected from Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS). Hindi adaptation of Cognitive Symptoms Checklist and Beck Depression Inventory were administered on 50 depressive patients and 50 normal controls. Results of the study suggest significant difference in cognitive functions between depressive patients and normal subjects. Depressive patients showed more deficits in Attention, Memory and Executive Functioning on Cognitive Symptoms Checklist (CSC) than normal controls.

Original Article

Tulika Ghosh, Dr. K.S. Sengar, A.R. Singh

Cognitive Remediation of Working Memory Deficits in Patients with Schizophrenic Disorder

[Year:2011] [Month:February-August] [Volume:14] [Number:1-2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:32 - 37]

Keywords: Cognitive remediation, Schizophrenia, Working memory

   DOI: 10.5005/EJP-14-1--2-32  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: The present study focuses upon the effects of cognitive remediation programme upon the working memory deficits of the patients with schizophrenic disorder. Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe and debilitating psychiatric illness. It is often described in terms of positive and negative symptoms. The working memory deficits are considered a cardinal cognitive feature of schizophrenia. Methods: Five patients admitted in Ranchi Institute of Neuro- Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS), Ranchi, India in the age range of 20 to 40 years of male sex, meeting the ICD-10 DCR criteria of schizophrenia with minimum education of 12 years were taken for the study, following purposive sampling technique. A self developed socio-demographic and clinical data sheet was used to assess the socio-demographic correlates, the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale developed was used for assessing the psychotic symptoms, The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Stroop test was used for assessing the executive functions and the Letter-Number Sequencing and Spatial Span Subtests taken from the Wechsler Memory Scale- III were used for assessing the working memory of the subjects included in the study. Then a cognitive remediation programme was given to them for a period of three months after which the tests were readministered to see the effects of the intervention programme. Results: The patients suffering from schizophrenia show improved working memory ability after the cognitive remediation programme. Conclusion: Cognitive remediation programme has a positive effect upon the executive functioning, specially working memory of the patients suffering from schizophrenic disorder.

Original Article

Neha Sayeed, Jyoti Mishra, Sayeed Akhtar

Phenomenology of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Eastern India

[Year:2011] [Month:February-August] [Volume:14] [Number:1-2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:38 - 40]

Keywords: OCD

   DOI: 10.5005/EJP-14-1--2-38  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Background: The present study focuses on the symptoms and signs of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder as per DSM IV (APA 1994) and ICD 10 (WHO, 1992)2, were studied by administering Y-BOCS symptom checklist (Goodman, 1989), Kneeding out types of obsessions and compulsions and their sub-types. The presence of depression and suicidal ideas were assessed by administering HAM-D (Hamilton, 1960)3, Results: The patients diagnosed as OCD are not a single nosological entity. Each patient must be differentially diagnosed.

CASE REPORT

Neha Sayeed, Jyoti Mishra, Sayeed Akhtar, C.R.J. Khess, Avinash Sharma

Headache Clinic in a Psychiatric Hospital

[Year:2011] [Month:February-August] [Volume:14] [Number:1-2] [Pages:3] [Pages No:41 - 43]

Keywords: Primary Headache

   DOI: 10.5005/EJP-14-1--2-41  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Headache as a symptom can be primary or secondary. As regards primary headache the psychological facors can serve as the sole basis of headache (e.g. conversion, hypochondriasis, somatization and somatoform pain disorders)2. Merskey (1965)3 and Large (1980)4 have reported a high incidence of neurosis and depression with an incidence rate of more than 50% in some studies5,6. Many patients with purely psychiartic morbidity may find the headache clinic a more attractive and less stigmatizing option to roll themselves for Psychiatric treatment, Hence the study was planned. The aim of the study was to fine out the frequency of patients with primary headache syndromes, co-morbid psychiatric diagnoses or psychiatric morbidity in patients enrolling themselves in the headache clinic located in a psychiatric hospital. The implication of the study has been discussed.

CASE REPORT

Arabinda Brahma, Mahuya Chatterjee

Socio-Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Sexual Problems: Report from a Community Mental Health Clinic of West Bengal

[Year:2011] [Month:February-August] [Volume:14] [Number:1-2] [Pages:4] [Pages No:44 - 47]

Keywords: Community, Psychosocial disorders, Sexual problems

   DOI: 10.5005/EJP-14-1--2-44  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Sexual problems are common in the general population. It affects people's social life, particularly marital or long term relationships. This study aims to investigate the association of sexual problems with various physical, social, and psychological problems. 33 patients (21 men and 12 women) came to a community mental health clinic with sexual problems were interviewed. There were strong physical and psycho-social associations found with sexual problems. Erectile problems and premature ejaculation were common sexual problems in men. Erectile problems were commonly found in association with hypertension and diabetes, whereas anxiety was predominantly associated with premature ejaculation. In women, the predominant association with arousal, orgasmic and enjoyment problems was marital difficulties. Anxiety and depression were more commonly associated with female sexual problems. Effective therapy (physical and psychological approaches) may have a wide range of social and psychological benefits in the adult population.

CASE REPORT

Kaustav Chakraborty

Acute Dystonia with Paroxetine – Case Presentation, Possible Mechanism and Clinical Implications

[Year:2011] [Month:February-August] [Volume:14] [Number:1-2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:48 - 49]

   DOI: 10.5005/EJP-14-1--2-48  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that is used in the treatment of panic disorder. SSRIs as a group are known to causeextra-pyramidal syndrome (EPS) even at therapeutic doses. However, systematic data regarding this is lacking. We describe a case of acute cervical dystonia in a young adult with panic disorder temporally related to paroxetine. The dystonia was relieved by intravenous injection of promethazine, an antihistaminic with anticholinergic property. Inhibitory serotonergic input to dopaminergic system in the nigro-striatal pathway may be responsible for such idiosyncratic reaction. Clinicians should be aware of such side effect while prescribing SSRIs as this can have significant clinical implications

View Point

Rajeev Jaiswal

The Quest for an Ideal Mental Health Act

[Year:2011] [Month:February-August] [Volume:14] [Number:1-2] [Pages:9] [Pages No:50 - 58]

Keywords: Mental Health Act, Persons with Mental Illness, Mental Health Facilities, MHRC, SMHA

   DOI: 10.5005/EJP-14-1--2-50  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Abstract

Legislation in the field of mental health is required to protect human rights of the patients, and to provide for legislative procedures for admission into mental health facilities. After a long and protracted course, the Mental Health Act (MHA) – 1987 was enacted by the Government of India (GOI). Though it contained many progressive features of advancement over the previous India Lunacy Act (ILA) – 1912, it failed to come up to expectation due to various inherent drawbacks and other factors. After ratification of the UNCRPD by India, it became imperative to amend the existing MHA – 1987. The drafting team, which has been assigned duty to prepare the new and amended proposal of the MHA by the Ministry of Health & FW, GOI, issued a draft of a new Act, the Mental Health Care Act on 06.12.10. This proposed draft gives special stress to human rights of persons with mental illness, and makes it obligatory for the government to establish a mental health care delivery system which can be accessed by all. It also proposes to establish Mental Health Review Commission (MHRC) to review admissions to mental health facilities and to ensure human rights of persons of mental illness and State Mental Health Authority (SMHA) to perform various functions like registration and supervision of mental health facilities and other functions related to mental health services. All stake holders are being consulted in the process. But the professionals have reservations on some of its provisions. Stands of the professionals in mental health and those of the human right activists are frequently at variance with each other. Activist groups are pressing for stiff control on psychiatric institutions and practically a ban on involuntary admissions to mental health facilities. Suggestions for improvement in the proposed draft are given.

From Student Desk

Aishwarya Prasad

Specific Learning Disabilities: The Changing Scenario

[Year:2011] [Month:February-August] [Volume:14] [Number:1-2] [Pages:2] [Pages No:59 - 60]

   DOI: 10.5005/EJP-14-1--2-59  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

Editorial Policy & Guidelines to the Author

Editorial Policy Statement

[Year:2011] [Month:February-August] [Volume:14] [Number:1-2] [Pages:6] [Pages No:61 - 66]

   DOI: 10.5005/EJP-14-1--2-61  |  Open Access |  How to cite  | 

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