Eastern Journal of Psychiatry

Register      Login

VOLUME 21 , ISSUE 1 ( January-December, 2018 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

A study exploring the attachment pattern and parenting style in adolescent males with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Aparajita Chakraborty, Bidita Bhattacharya

Keywords : Attachment, Parenting, Adolescents, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Citation Information : Chakraborty A, Bhattacharya B. A study exploring the attachment pattern and parenting style in adolescent males with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). 2018; 21 (1):8-15.

DOI: 10.5005/EJP-21-1-8

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 25-01-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2018; The Author(s).


Background Attachment pattern and Parenting Style are related and has its impact on different aspects of life. Attachment behaviour anticipates a response by the attachment figure which will remove threat or discomfort. Parenting style, on the other hand, is how parents take care of their child. This impacts the child's personality development, social interaction and close relationships, as well as developing psychopathology. It also influences attachment related insecurities in children and adolescents. Acting together, they often give rise to psychopathological condition, namely obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Materials and Methods The study focuses on two separate groups consisting of 20 adolescent (13-17 years of age) males with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and their parents (40, between 40 and 50 years of age) (group 1 - study group), and 40 adolescent males without any overt psychopathology and their parents (120) (group 2 - comparative group). The participants were assessed on General Health Questionnaire12 (GHQ-12), Children Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive scale (CYBOCS), Children Depression Inventory-2 (CDI-2), Parenting Style Questionnaire (PSQ) and Adolescent Attachment Questionnaire (AAQ). Obtained data were analyzed by suitable statistical measure by using SPSS. Results Attachment pattern having angry distress and availability were found to be statistically significant in both the groups (t=2.11, (P=0.05) and t=2.70 (P=0.01), respectively. Also authoritarian parenting style in fathers (t=3.45, P=0.01) and authoritative and permissive parenting style in mothers (t=6.39, and t=4.03 (P= 0.01), respectively) of both the groups were statistically significant. Conclusion Angry distress and availability attachment pattern and all three parenting styles play a role in developing obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) among adolescent males.

PDF Share
  1. Ainsworth MDS. Attachments across the life span. Bulletin of the New York. 1985. Academy of Medicine, 61, 792-811.
  2. Weiss R. Attachment in adult life. In C. M. Parkes, J. Stevenson-Hinde, & P. Marris (Eds.). Attachment across the life cycle. 1991. (pp. 171-184). London: Routledge.
  3. West ML, Sheldon-Keller, AE. Patterns of relating: An adult attachment perspective. New York: Guilford Press. 1994.
  4. Baumrind D. Effects of Authoritative Parental Control on Child Behavior, Child Development, 1966. 37(4), 887-907.
  5. Abramowitz JS, Khandker M, Nelson C, Deacon B, Rygwall R. The role of cognitive factors in the pathogenesis of obsessions and compulsions: A prospective study. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2006.44, 1361-1374.
  6. Timpano KR, Keough ME, Mahaffey B, Schmidt, NB, Abramowitz, J. Parenting and obsessive compulsive symptoms: Implications of authoritarianparenting. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 24, 151-164. 2010. doi:10.1891/0889-8391.24.3.151.
  7. Strunck HV. Exploration of the Relationship between Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Parenting Style Subtypes. Walden University. Walden Dissertation and Doctoral Studies. 2016.
  8. Bowlby J. Attachment and loss, Vol. 2. Separation: anxiety and anger. New York: Basic Books, 1973.
  9. Bowlby J. Attachment and loss, Vol. 1. Attachment (2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books, 1982.
  10. Mikulincer M, Shaver PR. Attachment in adulthood: structure, dynamics, and change. New York: Guilford, 2007
  11. Bowlby J. A secure base: clinical applications of attachment theory. London: Routledge, 1988.
  12. Firestone L. How Your Attachment Style Affects Your Parenting Experiencing an insecure attachment pattern as a child can hurt us in many ways. Posted Oct 19, 2015.
  13. Stern JA, Borelli JL, Smiley, PA. Assessing parental empathy: a role for empathy in child attachment. Attach Hum Dev. 2015;17(1): 1-22.
  14. Hall N, Smith E, Linders J, Aquino T. Adult Attachment Style, Obsessive-Compulsiveness, and Response to a Stressful Situation. Westminster Journal for Global Progress. 2017.
  15. Doran G, Moulding R, Kyrios M, Nedeljkovic M, Mikulincer M. Adult attachment insecurities are related to obsessive compulsive phenomena. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. 2009. 28(8), 1022-1049.
  16. Kemp MA, Neimeyer GJ. Interpersonal Attachment: Experiencing, Expressing, and Coping with Stress. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1999. 46(3) 388--394.
  17. Shah PE, Fonagy P, Strathearn L. Is attachment transmitted across generations? The plot thickens. Clinical and Child Psychology. 2010 Jul; 15(3): 329-45.
  18. Carnelley KB, Pietromonaco PR Jaffe K. Attachment, caregiving, and relationship functioning in couples: Effects of self and partner, Personal Relationships, 3(3), 257-277. 1996.
  19. Simpson JA, Rholes WS, Campbell L, Tran S, Wilson CL. Adult attachment, the transition to parenthood, and depressive symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 1172-1187. 2003.
  20. Roberts JE, Gotlib IH, Kassel JD. Adult attachment security and symptoms of depression: The mediating roles of dysfunctional attitudes and low self-esteem. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 70(2), 310-320. 1996.
  21. Rezavana S, Bahrambib F, Abedib M, MacLeodc C, Neshat Doostb HT, Ghasemi V. Attachment insecurity as a predictor of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in female children. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 25(4), 403-41. 2012.
  22. Ivarsson T, Granqvist P, Gillberg C, Broberg AG. Attachment states of mind in adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder and/or depressive disorders: A controlled study. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 19(11), 845-853. 2010.
  23. Gallant J, Storch EA, Merlo LJ, Ricketts ED. Convergent and discriminant validity of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Symptom Checklist. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 22(8): 1369-76. 2008.
  24. Goldberg D. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12). Windsor: NFER-Nelson. 1992.
  25. West M, Rose MS, Sheldon-Keller A, Adam K. Adolescent Attachment Questionnaire: A Brief Assessment of Attachment in Adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. October 1998, Volume 27, (5), pp 661-673.
  26. Robinson CL, Mandleco B, Olsen SF, Hart CH. Authoritative, authoritarian, and pernuss1ve parenting practices: Development of a new measure. Psychological Reports, 77, 819-830. 1995.
  27. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Mental Health. Transforming the understanding and treatment of mental illness. [Internet]. 2017 Nov. Available from: https://www.nirnh.nih.gov/health/statistics/any-anxiety-disorder.shtml.
  28. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Mental Health. Transforming the understanding and treatment of mental illness. [Internet]. 2019 Feb. Available from: https://www.nirnh.nih.gov/health/statistics/rnajordepression.shtml.
  29. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Mental Health. Transforming the understanding and treatment of mental illness. [Internet]. 2017 Nov. Available from: https://www.nirnh.nih.gov/health/statistics/eatingdisorders.shtml.
  30. Flament MF, Whitaker A, Rapoport JL, et al. Obsessive compulsive disorder in adolescence: an epidemiological study. J Arn Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1988; 27: 764-71.
  31. Heyman I, Fornbonne E, Simmons H, et al. Prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the British nationwide survey of child mental health. Br J Psychiatry 2001; 179: 324-9.
  32. Douglass HM, Moffitt TE, Dar R, et al. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in a birth cohort of 18-year-olds: prevalence and predictors. J Arn Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1995; 34: 1424-31.
  33. Greenberg MT. Attachment and psychopathology in childhood. In: Cassidy J, Shaver PR, editors. Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical implications. New York: Guilford; 1999. pp. 469-96.
  34. Muris P, Mayer B, Meesters C. Self-reported attachment style, anxiety and depression in children. Soc Behav Pers. 2000; 28: 157--152.
  35. Sondhi R. Parenting Adolescents in India: A Cultural Perspective. 2017. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/66451.2017.
  36. Akhtar Z. The Effect of Parenting Style of Parents on the Attachment Styles of Undergraduate Students Zarina, Ph.D. Volume 12: 1 January 2012. ISSN 1930-2940. Language in India.
  37. Guidano VF, Liotti G. Cognitive processes and emotional disorders. New York: The Guilford Press; 1983. pp 347.
  38. Abramowitz JS, Beacon BJ, Olatunji BO, Wheaton MG, Berman NC, Losardo D, et al., Assessment of obsessivecompulsive symptom dimensions: Development and evaluation of the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. Psychological Assessment, 22, 180-198. 2010. doi:10.1037/a0018260.
  39. Wood JJ, McLeod BD, Sigman M, Hwang WC, Chu BC. Parenting and childhood anxiety: Theory, empirical findings, and future directions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 134-151. 2003. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00106.
  40. Alonso PM, Mench6n J, Mataix-Cols D, Pifarre J, Urretavizcaya M, Crespo JM, et al. Perceived parental rearing style in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Relation to symptom dimensions. Psychiatry Research 2004; 127(3): 267-78
  41. Uji M, Sakamoto A, Adachi K, Kitamura T. The impact of authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles on children's later mental health in Japan: Focusing on parent and child gender. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 23, 293-302. 2014. doi: 10.1007/s10826-013-9740-3.
  42. Williams KE, Ciarrochi J, Heaven PCL. Inflexible parents, inflexible kids: A 6-year longitudinal study of parenting style and the development of psychological flexibility in adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41, 1053- 1066.2012. doi:10.1007/s10964-012-9744-0.
  43. Aycicegi A, Harris CL, Dinn WM. Parenting style and obsessive-compulsive symptoms and personality traits in a student sample. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy 2002;9(6):406-17
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.