Background: Parenting refers to the aspects of raising a child in terms of physical, social, emotional as well as over all development of the child aside from the biological relationship.
Aim: The present study has been undertaken with the aim to assess parenting stress in the parents of mentally retarded children and parents of normal healthy children.
Methods: A total of 100 respondents (50 parents of mentally retarded children and 50 parents of normal children) were selected by using purposive sampling technique. Further socio-demographic data sheet, General Health Questionnaire- 12 and Parenting Stress Index Scale were administered.
Results: Parents of mentally retarded children showed parenting stress in comparison to parents of normal children. Parents of mentally retarded children had feeling of inability to handle things very easily. They feel trapped by their responsibilities as a parent. Parents of mentally retarded children showed parental distress and found to be having feeling that they are unable to do new and different things, they almost were unable to do things the way they like to do. They used to perceive that child rarely does things for them which make them feel good. They used to perceive that their child cry more than other children and generally wakes up in a bad mood and easily gets upset over the small things.
Conclusions: Parents with mentally retarded children showed stress in the areas related to defensive response, parental distress, parent child dysfunctional interaction and difficult child in comparison to parents of normal children.
Beckman, P.J. (1991). Comparision of mother's and father's perception of the effect of young children with and without disabilities. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 95, 585-595.
Benzur, H. Duvduvancy. I & Lury, L. (2005). Association of social support and hardiness with mental health among mothers of adult children with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 49 (1), 54-63.
Bruce L. Baker, Jan Blacher, Keith A. Crnic, & Craig Edelbrock (2002). Behaviour problems and parenting stress in families of five year old children with and without developmental delays. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 107 (6), 433-444.
Crnic, K.A., & Greenberg, M.T. (1990). Minor parenting stresses with young children. Child Development, 61, 1628-1637.
Davies, Martin (2000). The Blackwell encyclopedia of social work. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 245. ISBN 9780631214519.
Dyson, L.L. (1997). Fathers and Mothers of school Age Children with Developmental Disabilities: Parental stress, family functioning, and social support. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 102 (3), 267-279.
Erickson, M. & Upshur, C.C. (1989). Care taking burden and social support: Comparison of mothers of infants with and without disabilities. American Association on Mental Retardation, 94, 250-258.
Gath, A. (1977). The impact of an abnormal child upon the parents. In R. Peshwaria, D.K. Menon, R. Granguly, S. Roy and A. Gupta (Eds), Understanding India Families, (37-39) G.A. Graphics, Secunderabad.
Guess, L., Pamela, A.F. & Ellens, S. (1998). Parental Perception of stress and copping: Families of preschoolers with and without disabilities. Dissertation, Abstracts Interventional Section B: The Sciences and Emergency, 59, 0459.
Raj Kumari Gupta & Herpreet Kaur (2010). Stress among parents of children with intellectual Disability Asia pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal, 21(2), 118-124.
Holt, K.S. (1958). The home care of severely mentally retarded, Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 22, 744-755.
Jarvis, P.A. & Creasey, G.L. (1991). Parental Stress, coping and attachment in families with an 18 months old infant. Infant Behaviour and Development, 14, 383-395.
Kelso, T., French, D. & Fernandez, M. (2005). Stress and coping in primary caregivers of children with a disability a qualitative study using Lazarus and Folkman process model of coping. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 5 (1), 3-14.
Krauss, M.W. (1993). Child related and parenting stress. Similarities and differences between mothers and fathers of children with disabilities. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 97, 4, 393-404.
Kravetz, S., Nativitz, R. & Katz, S. (1993). Parental Coping Style and school adjustment of the children who are mentally retarded. The British Journal of Developmental Disabilities Vol. 39, 76, 51–56.
Majumdar M., Rereira, Y.D.D., & Fernandes, J., (2000): Stress and anxiety in parents of mentally retarded children. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 47, 144–147.
Moran, G., Pederson, D.R. Pettit, P. & Krupka, A. (1992). Maternal sensivity and infant mother attachment in a developmentally delayed sample. Infant Behaviour and Development, 15, 427–442.
Moudgil, A. C., Kumar, H. & Sharma, S (1985). Buffering effect of social, emotional support on the parents of mentally retarded children. Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology, 2, 63-70.
Orr, R. R., Cameron, S. J. & Day, D. M. (1991). Coping with stress in family with children who have mental retardation: An evaluation of the double ABCX model. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 95, 4, 444-450.
Orsmond, G.I. & Barratt, M.S. (1999). Mothers and fathers of children with Down Syndrome: Parental stress and Involvement in child care: American Journal of Mental Retardation, 104, 5, 422-436.
Peshwaria, R., Mehinm, D.K., Roy, S. & Gupta, A. (1995). In understanding Indian families having person with Mental Retardation. Indian Journal for the Practising Doctor, vol. 5, 17-39 (NIMH).
Ricci, L.A. & Hodapp, R.N. (2003). Fathers of children with Down Syndrome Versus others type of intellectual disability: Perception, Stress and involvement. Journal Intellectual Disability Research, 47 (4-5), 273-84.
Rousey, A., Best, S. & Blacher, J. (1992). Mother's and father's perceptions of Stress and coping with children who have severe disabilities. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 94, 99-109.
Sloper, P., Khussen, C., Turner, S. & Cunnigham, C., (1991). Factors related to stress and satisfaction with life in families of children with Down Syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32, 4, 655-676.
Upadhyaya, G.R. & Havalappanavar, N.B. (2008): Stress in parents of the mentally challenged. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, vol. 34, special Issue pp. 53-59.