Eastern Journal of Psychiatry

Register      Login

VOLUME 14 , ISSUE 1-2 ( February-August, 2011 ) > List of Articles


Management of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with Methylphenidate - A Brief Review

Gurvinder Pal Singh

Keywords : Methylphenidate, ADHD, Psycho stimulants

Citation Information : Singh GP. Management of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with Methylphenidate - A Brief Review. 2011; 14 (1-2):1-6.

DOI: 10.5005/EJP-14-1--2-1

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 13-10-2021

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2011; The Author(s).


Methylphenidate has maintained its place, as first-line choice for the pharmacotherapy of ADHD. Methylphenidate is the most commonly used psychostimulant and has proven its short and long-term efficacy in treatment of ADHD. More than 70% of the children improve with it. Excellent results particularly on cognitive manifestations of this disorder with Methylphenidate are found in most of the studies. Currently its mechanism of action and other significant aspects are being understood in a much better way. In our country its wider availability and more clinical research is suggested so that maximum number of children with ADHD can benefit from metylphenidate use.

PDF Share
  1. Cantwell D. Hyperactive children have grown up: What have we been learning about what happens to them.
  2. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1985;42:102-108.
  3. Safer DJ, Zito JM, Fine EM. Increased methylphenidate usage for attention-deficit disorder in the 1990's. Pediatrics 1996; 98:1084–1088.
  4. Greenhill LL, Satterberg S. Pharmacotherapy of disorders of adolescence. Psychiatr Clin North Am 1993;16: 793-814.
  5. Gillberg C, Melander H, von Knorring AL, et al. Long term stimulant treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: A randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1997; 54:857-864.
  6. American Academy of Pediatrics, Subcommittee on Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Committee on Quality Improvement Clinical practice guideline: Treatment of the school-aged child with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Pediatrics. 2001;108:1033–1044.
  7. Fawcett J. Sympathomimetics- An article titled in Kaplan & Sadock's Comprehensive Text Book of Psychiatry, Benjamin J Sadock (eds) seventh ed vol. 2, Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams & wilkins, 2000:2474-78.
  8. Weiss G, Minde K, Douglas V, et al. Comparsion of the effects of chlorpromazine, dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate on the behaviour of hyperactive children. Can Med Association Journal 1971; 104:20-25.
  9. Pelham WE, Greenslade, Vodde-Hamilton M, et al. Relative efficacy of long- acting stimulants on children with attention deficithyperactivity disorder: A comparison of standard methylphenidate, sustained- release methylphenidate, sustainedrelease dextroamphetamine and pemoline. Pediatrics 1990;86:226–237.
  10. Barkley RA. A review of stimulant drug research with hyperactivity children. J Child psychol Psychiatry 1977; 18:137–165.
  11. Spencer T, Biederman J, Wilens T, Harding M, O'Donnell D, Griffin S. Pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder across the life cycle. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1996; 35:409-32.
  12. Malone, MA, Kershner, JR, Swanom, JM. Hemispheric Processing and methylphenidate effects in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Child Neurology 1994; 9: 181-184.
  13. Lou HC, Henriksen L, Bruhn P. Focal cerebral hypoperfusion in children with dysphasia and/or attention deficit disorder. Arch Neurology 1984; 41(8): 825-29
  14. Volz TJ, Farnsworth SJ, Rowley SD, Hanson GR, Fleckenstein AE. Methylphenidate-induced increases in vascular dopamine sequestration and dopamine release in the striatum: the role of muscarinic and dopamine D2 receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2008; 327:161-7.
  15. Wilens TE. Effects of Methylphenidate on the catecholaminergic system in attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2008;28:46-53.
  16. Barkley RA. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Handbook of Diagnosis & treatment. New York: The Guilford press, 1996; 573-612.
  17. Spencer T, Biederman J, Wilens T. Pharmacotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric clinics of North America 2000; 9: 77.
  18. Elia J, Ambrosini PJ, Rapoport JL. Treatment of attention - deficit - hyperactivity disorder. New England Journal of Medicine 1999;340: 780.
  19. Zametkin AJ, Ernst M. Problems in the management of attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder. New England Journal of Medicine 1999; 340: 40.
  20. Greenhill LL, Halperin JM, Abikoff H. Stimulant medications. J Am Acad Child and Adolesc Psychiatry 1999;38: 503.
  21. Klorman R, Brumaghim JT, Fitzpatrick PA, Borgstedt AD. Clinical effects of a controlled trial of Methylphenidate on 9 adolescents with Attention deficit disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 1990; 29: 702–709.
  22. Elia J, Welsh PA, Gullotta CS, Rapoport JL. Classroom academic performance: improvement with both methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine in attention deficit Hyperactivity disorder boys. J child Psychol Psychia 1993;34:785-804.
  23. Schachar RJ, Taylor E, Wieselberg M. Changes to family function and relationships in children who respond to methylphenidate. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1987; 26:728-32.
  24. Rapport MD, Denney C, Dupauli GJ, Gardner MJ. Attention deficit disorder and methylphenidate: normalization rates, clinical effectiveness and response prediction in 76 children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1994; 33:882-83.
  25. Rapport MD, Kelly KL. Psychostimulant effects on learning and cognitive function: findings and implications for children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Clin Psychol Rev 1991;11: 61-92.
  26. Whalen CK, Henker B, Granger DA. Social judgement processes in hyperactive boys: effects of methylphenidate and comparisons with normal peers. J Abnorm Child Psychol 1990; 18:297-316.
  27. Smith BH, Pelham WE, Evans S et al. Dosage effects of methylphenidate on the social behavior of adolescent diagnosed with attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 1998; 6:187-204.
  28. Winsberg BG, Kupietz SS, Sverg J, Hungund BL, Young NL. Methylphenidate oral dose plasma concentrations and behavioral response in children Psychopharmacol (Berlin) 1982; 76:329-32.
  29. Buttelnar JK, Vander Gaag RJ, Swaab-Barneveld H. Prediction of clinical response to methylphenidate in children with attention deficit/Hyperactivity disorder, J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1995; 34: 1025-1032.
  30. Aman MG, Pejeau C, Osborne P, Rojahn J., Handen B. Four-year Follow-up of children with low intelligence and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder Res Dev Disabil 1996;17: 417-432.
  31. Klein RG, Abikoff H, Klass E, Ganeler D, Seese LM, Pollack S. Clinical efficacy of methylphenidate in conduct disorder with and without Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Pschiatry 1997; 54:1073-80.
  32. Gross-Tsur V, Manor O., Van der Meere J., Joseph A., Shalev R.S. Epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders: is methylphenidate safe and effective? J Pediatr 1997; 130: 670-4.
  33. Taylor MA. Evaluation and management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am fam physician 1997;55: 887-894.
  34. Gadow KD, Sverd J, Sprafkin J, Nolan EE, Ezor SN. Efficacy of methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with tic disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1995; 52: 444-5 [Erratum, Arch Gen Psychiatry 1995; 52; 836]
  35. Gadow K., Sverd J., Sprafkin J., Nolan E., Grossman S. Long term methylphenidate therapy in children with co morbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and chronic multiple tic disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999; 56:330-336.
  36. Connor DF, Glatt SJ, Lopej ID, et al. Psychopharamacology and aggression. I: A meta-analysis of stimulant effects on overt/covert aggression-related behaviors in ADHD. J Am Acad child Adolesc Psychiatry 2002;41:253-61.
  37. Birmaher B, Greenhill LL, Cooper TB, Fried J, Maminski B. Sustained release methylphenidate pharmacokinetic studies in ADDH males. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1987;28: 768-72.
  38. Barkley RA, Dupaul GJ, McMurray MB. Attention deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity: clinical response to three dose levels of methylphenidate. Pediatrics 1991;87: 519-31.
  39. Rapport MD, Denney C. Titrating. Methylphenidate in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: is body mass predictive of clinical response? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1997;36: 523-30.
  40. Keating GM, McClellen K, Jarvis B. Methylphenidate (OROS formulation). CNS Drugs. 2001;15:495-500.
  41. Goldman LS, Genel M, Bezman RJ, Slanetz PJ. Diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association. JAMA 1998;279:1100-7.
  42. Wigal SB. Efficacy and safety limitations of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder pharmacotherapy in children and adults. CNS Drugs 2009;23:21-31.
  43. Dopheide JA, Pliszka SR. Attention-Deficit-hyperactivity disorder: an update. Pharmacotherapy 2009; 29:656-79.
  44. Elia J, Borcherding BG, Potter WZ, Mefford IN, Rapoport JL, Keysor CS. Stimulant drug treatment of hyperactivity: biochemical correlates. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1990;48: 57-66.
  45. Elia J, Borcherding BG, Rapoport JL, Keysor CS. Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine treatments of hyperactivity: are there true non-responders? Psychiatry Res 1991;36: 141-55.
  46. Klein RG, Bessler AW. Stimulant side effects in children. In: Kane JM, Lieberman JA, eds. Adverse effects of Psychotropic drugs. New York: Guilford Press 1992;470-96.
  47. Schertz M, Adesman AR, Alfieri NE, Bienkowski RS. Predictors of weight loss in children with ADHD treated with stimulant medication. Pediatrics 1996; 98:763-769.
  48. Bennet FC Brown RT, Craver J, Anderson D. Stimulant medication for the child with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics clinics of North America 1993;46: 929.
  49. Pliszka SR, Grantill LL, Crismon ML et al. The Texas Children's Medication Algorithm Project: Report of the Texas consensus conference panel on medication Treatment of childhood Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Part I and Part II. Tactics. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2000;39:908-926.
  50. Klein RG, Mannuzza S. Hyperactive boys almost grown up III Methylphenidate effects on ultimate height. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988; 45: 1131-4.
  51. Klein RG, Landa B, Mattes JA, Klein DF. Methylphenidate and growth in hyperactive children: a controlled withdrawal study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1988; 45:1127-30.
  52. Goldman RD. ADHD stimulants and their effect on height in children. Can Fam Physician 2010; 56:145-6.
  53. MTA Cooperative Group. National Institute of Mental Health Multimodal treatment study of ADHD follow up: changes in effectiveness and growth after the end of treatment. Pediatr 2004;113:762-9.
  54. Hechtman L. Adolescent outcome of hyperactive children treated with stimulants in childhood: a review. Psychopharmacol Bull 1985;21: 178-91.
  55. Poulin C. From attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder to medical stimulant use to the diversion of prescribed stimulants to nonmedical stimulant use: connecting the dots. Addiction 2007; 102:740-51.
  56. Wilens TE, Adler LA, Adams J. et al. Misuse and diversion of stimulants prescribed for ADHD: a systematic review of the literature. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2008;47:21-31.
  57. Faraone SV, Wilens TE. Effect of stimulant medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on later substance use and the potential for stimulant misuse, abuse, and diversion. J Clin Psychiatry 2007; 68:15-22.
  58. Michelson D, Farries D, Wernicke J, Kesley D, Kendrick K, Sallee FR, Spencer T. Atomoxetine ADHD study group. Atomoxetine in the treatment of children and adolescents with attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-response study. Pediatr 2001, 108: E83.
  59. Kratochvil CJ, Bohac D, Harrington M, Baker N, May D, Burke WJ. An open-label trial of tomoxetine in pediatric attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacology 2001, 11: 167-70.
  60. Casat CD, Pleasants DZ, Van Wyck Fleet J. A double-blind trial of bupropion in children with attention deficit disorder. Psychopharmacol Bull, 1987, 23:120-2.
  61. Popper CW. Antidepressants in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Psychiatry, 1997, 58:14-29
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.