Eastern Journal of Psychiatry

Register      Login

VOLUME 13 , ISSUE 1-2 ( February-August, 2010 ) > List of Articles

Original Article

Psychopathology among Primary Caregivers of Major Psychiatric Patients

Sanjay Kumar Nayak, Surekha Kumari, Masroor Jahan, Amool R. Singh

Keywords : perceived burden, mental illness, stigma, depression

Citation Information : Nayak SK, Kumari S, Jahan M, Singh AR. Psychopathology among Primary Caregivers of Major Psychiatric Patients. 2010; 13 (1-2):54-59.

DOI: 10.5005/EJP-13-1--2-54

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 13-10-2021

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2010; The Author(s).


Background: Perceived stigma and experiencing different kinds of burden for long time by primary caregivers during caring family member suffering from major psychiatric illness may affects their mental health. Present study was conducted to find out the nature of psychopathology experienced by primary caregivers of major psychiatric patients. Material & Method: Forty-four caregivers of major psychiatric patients were selected from outdoor psychiatric unit of Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences, Ranchi and forty-one normal controls were selected from different location of Ranchi district. They were assessed on Symptoms Checklist–90–Revised (SCL-90) and General Health Questionnaire – 28 (GHQ-28). Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (13.0 ver.). Result: The result suggests that primary caregivers experience psychopathology, namely, somatization, obsessive compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, anger hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and social dysfunction while caring someone family member suffering from major psychiatric illness and the number of caregivers in family definitely has an impact on severity of the caregivers’ psychopathology. Total duration of patient's treatment and total duration of patient's illness also affect caregiver's phobic anxiety and number of patient's hospitalization affects caregivers’ social dysfunction as well. Conclusion: Findings suggest that mental health issues of caregivers should also be addressed while formulating management plan for patients suffering from major psychiatric disorders.

PDF Share
  1. Ostman, M. & L. Hansson (2004). Appraisal of caregiving, burden and psychological distress in relatives of psychiatric inpatients. European Psychiatry, 19, 402-407.
  2. Kalra, H., Kamath, P., Trivedi, J.K. & Janca, A. (2008). Caregiver burden in anxiety disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 21(1), 70-73.
  3. Madianos, M., Economou, M., Dafni, O., Koukia, E., Palli, A. & Rogakou, E. (2004). Family disruption, economic hardship and psychological disress in schizophrenia: Can they be measured. European psychiatry: the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists, 19(7), 408-414.
  4. Lee, T.C., Yang, Y.K., Chen, P.S., Hung, N.C., Lin, S.H., Chang, F.L. & Cheng, S.H. (2006). Different dimensions of social support for the caregivers of patients with schizophrenia: Main effect and stress-buffering models. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 60(5), 546-550.
  5. Lueboonthavatchai, P. & Lueboonthavatchai, O. (2006). Quality of life and correlated health status and social support of schizophrenic patients’ caregivers. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 89 (3), 13-19.
  6. Struening, E.L., Perlick, D.A., Link, B.G., Hellman, F., Herman, D. & Sirey, J.A. (2001). Stigma as a barrier to recovery: The extent to which caregivers believe most people devalue consumers and their families. Psychiatric Services, 52, 1633-1638 Derogatis, L.R. (1994). Symptom Checklist-90-R: Administration, scoring and procedures manual, 3rd edition, National Computer Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, MN 55440.
  7. Phelan, J.C., Bromet, E.J. & Link, B.G. (1998). Psychiatric illness and family stigma. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 24, 115–126.
  8. Taj, R., Hamed, S., Mufti, M. Khan, A. & Rehman, G. (2005). Depression among primary caregivers of schizophrenic patients. Annals of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, 1(2), 101-104.
  9. Heru, A.M., Ryan, C.E. & Madrid, H. (2005). Psychoeducation for caregivers of patients with chronic mood disorders. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 69(4), 331-340.
  10. Perlick, D.A., Miklowith, D.J., Link, B.G., Struening, E., Kaczynski, R., Gonzalez, J., Manning, L.N., Wolff, N. & Rosenheck, R.A. (2007). Perceived stigma and depression among caregivers of patients with bipolar disorder. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 535-536.
  11. Hou, S.Y., Ke, C.K.K., Su, Y., Lung, F.W. & Huang, C.J. (2008). Exploring the burden of the primary family caregivers of schizophrenia patients in Taiwan. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 62(5), 508-514.
  12. Sandy, M., Jorge, I., María, G. & Raymond, C. (2007). Psychological distress among latino family caregivers of adults with schizophrenia: The roles of burden and stigma. Psychiatric Services, 58, 378-384.
  13. Parabiaghi, A., Lasalvia, A., Bonetto, C., Cristofalo, D., Marrella, G., Tansella, M. & Ruggeri, M. (2007). Predictors of changes in caregiving burden in people with schizophrenia: a 3-year follow-up study in a community mental health service. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 116(suppl. 437), 66-76.
  14. Pinquart, M. & Sorensen, S. (2003). Associations of stressors and uplifts of caregiving with caregiver burden and depressive mood: A meta-analysis. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences & Social Sciences, 58B, 112-128.
  15. Brown, E.S., Gan, V., Jeffress, J. Gingrich, K.M., Khan, D.A., Wood, B.L., Miller, B.D., Gruchalla, R. & Rush, J. (2006). Psychiatric symptomatology and disorders in caregivers of children with asthma. Pediatrics, 118(6), 1715–1720.
  16. Mahoney, R., Regan, C. & Katona, C. (2005). Anxiety and Depression in Family Caregivers of People With Alzheimer Disease: The LASER-AD Study, American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13(9), 795-801.
  17. Gilleard, C.J., Gilleard, E., Gledhill, K. & Whittick, J. (1984). Caring for the elderly mentally infirm at home: A survey of the supporters. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 38(4), 319-325.
  18. Goldberg, D.P. & Hillier, V.F. (1979). A scaled version of the General Health Questionnaire. Psychological Medicine, 9, 139-45.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.